Perception Based Study of Variation Order in Building Construction Projects

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Anjay Kumar Mishra
Neetu Korala
Sujan Khadka
Amit Dhungana
Rajat Pokharel
Shangrila Lama
Niraj Adhikari
Shubash Acharya
Aithal P. S.


Purpose: The main objective of this study is to identify the various origin and causes of variation orders. The study area is limited to Tribhuwan University premises, Kathmandu. The result of this study can be further used to analyze the impacts of those and also to develop prevention measures which further can be beneficial in upcoming projects.

Design/Methodology/Approach:  Fifty respondents including client, consultant, and contractor and their representatives having experience above two years were questioned for the primary source of data collection. Research works, papers, publications, journals, online information, contract documents, letters, and documents were used for secondary data collection. For ranking the perception based relative importance index of respondents views of causes, five ranking Likert scale have been used.

Findings/Result:  Respondents have viewed the major cause of variations originated from the client in overall projects are change of plans, impediment in prompt decision making, financial difficulties, changes of scope and poor project objectives with RII 0.80, 0.72, 0.69, 0.64, and 0.63 respectively. Similarly, the causes originated from consultants are change of plans or scope, defects in the bill of quantities, change in design, defect in design, and lack of judgment and experience with RII 0.756, 0.736, 0.712, 0.668, and 0.656 respectively. Major causes having their origin from the contractor are found to be lack of specified and appropriate competent construction manager, lack of involvement in design, lack of judgement and experience, lack of strategic planning, and financial difficulties with RII 0.72, 0.70, 0.66, 0.66, and 0.59 respectively. Another main cause of weather conditions with RII 0.55 and the least is socio-cultural factors having RII 0.43.

Originality/Value: It is action research to enhance the performance of Projects by managing Variations.

Paper Type: Analytical Policy Research


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How to Cite
Anjay Kumar Mishra, Neetu Korala, Sujan Khadka, Amit Dhungana, Rajat Pokharel, Shangrila Lama, Niraj Adhikari, Shubash Acharya, & Aithal P. S. (2021). Perception Based Study of Variation Order in Building Construction Projects. International Journal of Management, Technology and Social Sciences (IJMTS), 6(2), 12–27.

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